The Saint Vincent Archabbey Collection is comprised of some 2,000 paintings, sculptures, prints and stained glass. The primary holding is 195 17th, 18th, and 19th century European paintings which were donated through the auspices of King Ludwig I of Bavaria in the 1850s. Artists represented in this collection include Marianna Kirzinger, Johann Liss, Alessandro Magnasco, Johann Schönfeld, Heinrich Vogel, and the schools of Gerard van Honthorst and Johann Loth. Several hundred 18th and 19th century European drawings and prints were added to the collection by founder, Archabbot Boniface Wimmer, O.S.B., in the second half of the 19th century, and more works have been added through purchases and donations.

In the second half of the 19th century, monks of Saint Vincent Archabbey operated the Altar Building Stock Company of Covington, Kentucky, which was under the direction of Brother Cosmas Wolf, O.S.B. Brother Cosmas was trained at the Royal Academy of Art in Munich and was a master sculptor and designer. Today, the art collection has several hundred drawings, designs and objects from Brother Cosmas and his workshop, including a juvenilia painting by Frank Duveneck, and works by Wilhelm Lamprecht, and Johann Schmitt.

Other strong collections include international liturgical artists of the 1950s and 60s, and the works of Louis Chang and Roman Verotsko. Most of these works are religious in nature, and include works by Francis Aretz, Luke Ch’en, John Del Monte, Janet DeCoux, Jean de Marco, Gleb Derujinsky, Emile Frei, Jan Henryk de Rosen, André Gerard, Jakob Goglin, Victor Hammer, Cho Kwang-Ho, Norbert and Victoria Koehn, Anne Lopez, Thomas Moran, Joseph Reitter, Lambert Rucki, Eugene Rutkowski, Ferdinand Seeboeck, Kenneth Sullivan, Mark Symons, Roman Verotsko, Ladislaus Vitalis, Sadao Watanabe, and Hugo Weihermüller.

The Saint Vincent College Collection is comprised of several hundred works of art which have been purchased and donated over the past sixty-plus years. It contains graphic works by world-renowned artists, such as Pierre Bonnard, Mark Chagall, Aristed Maillol, Alfred Manessier, Isabella Markell, Henri Matisse, Salvator Meo, Jean Miro, Pablo Picasso, Rembrandt, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Georges Rouault, Richard Ruben, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Fernand Leger, Gino Serevini, Maurice de Vlaminck, and Andrew Wyeth.

In addition, the College Collection is strong in its holdings of Pennsylvania and local artists, such as Ray Defazio, Nancy Galm, Henry Gasser, Bud Gibson, Mary Hamilton, Mary Martha Himler, Margaret Ziff March, Dai Morgan, Olive Turney, Helen Siegel, and Paul Warhola. There is an interesting collection of works by women artists, such as: Yetta Borntstein, Helen Gerardia, Anna Marie Hufnagel, Hilda R. Karniol, Annie Lenney, Naomi Lorne, Elizabeth Meade, Gergtrude Quastler, Lilly Shuff, and Vivienne Thaul Wechter, and two important paintings, one by the Canadian painter Robert Bateman, and the other from the Spanish School of Diego Velázquez.  There are also two small study collections: of Pre-Columbian artifacts, and Ancient Greek, Etruscan and Roman pottery and jewelry.